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Whatever he is communicating, he does so with clarity, whether you agree with him or not. Dembski is obviously brilliant and likely correct but I need explanation and I need it in layman's terms.

1. Introduction

While staying well within the bounds of Christian orthodoxy, Dembski offers fresh insights that can truly be described as groundbreaking. The term humidity indicates water vapour, normally admixed with air or other dry gas. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air — Part 1: Perhaps it stems from his US Christian mental environment with a view of God that is too sentimental, and of creation that is too Disneyfied. So it is the problem of pain and evil that causes so many of us to stumble.

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Entering the conversation, Dembski's provocative The End of Christianity embraces the challenge to formulate a theodicy that is both faithful to Christian orthodoxy and credible to the new mental environment. He writes to make peace with three claims: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Dating girl with mental health problems sites free interracial. Accuracy via different definitions and conventions clearly requires consistency with respect to experimental measurements, equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and buffer solutions that are used for specific approaches.

Radiocarbon Dating

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Datin in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide.

In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI.

The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organisations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

Climate research is a special scientific task that inherently requires close world-wide cooperation over many human generations. Observational data, be they measured directly or derived from equations that transform the original input values, need to be rigorously defined, consistent radikcarbon comparable between groups that work at distant locations or times.

The impossibility of repeating real-time climatological measurements largely prevents correcting erratic or suspicious readings made in the past.

Data measured cost will likely be exploited in the future radlocarbon should be unambiguous and crhistian to the highest standards currently available. The requisite traceability to the SI of environmental measurement results was only gradually established in recent years, and in several fields this traceability still poses a serious challenge BIPM,as will also be emphasised in this paper and its companions.

Solving these metrological problems in geosciences demands joint efforts of international organisations and institutions that develop and implement definitions, equations and measurement standards based on the SI. Water in its donald ambient phases is the unrivalled key substance in the complex dynamic terrestrial climate system. Trends in global distributions of humidity, latent heat flux, evaporation and precipitation are closely connected with small but precisely measurable systematic shifts and anomalies in sea-surface salinities Boyer et al.

Seawater is the largest buffer for anthropogenically produced CO 2a fact that highlights the risk of ocean acidification and potential damage to the marine ecosystem Caldeira and Wickett, ; Raven et al. Seawater pH chrkstian an important parameter associated with the distribution of inorganic carbon in the ocean.

It is evident from climatology and geosciences that atmospheric relative humidity, ocean salinity and seawater christian are key parameters for observing, modelling and analysing the increasing effects of global warming on ecosystems and society. However, despite their widespread use and relevance, the metrological underpinning of these parameters is inadequate, relies on century-old provisional concepts, lacks traceability to the SI, or suffers from ambiguities and deficiencies of definitions, conventions and measurement techniques.

The definition read more relative humidity stands out from that of salinity and pH in that a widely accepted and authorised definition, clearly traceable to the SI, and acting as a de facto standard, has been established and promulgated by the WMO 1 since Nevertheless, the definition does not cover the full range of conditions possible under both industrial and extreme natural conditions, and a number of non-standard definitions continue to propagate.

The challenge is to provide a definition of relative humidity with a sound thermodynamic basis consistent with the Datimg definition yet covering the full range.

The recent standard for the thermodynamic properties of seawater, TEOS, is introduced in the next section. Sections 3, 4 and 5, respectively, briefly introduce the datinh challenges of ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity which are then analysed in greater depth in the subsequent Parts 2, 3 and 4, respectively, of this series of articles. Those companion papers review the scientific histories of definition and measurement of seawater salinity, seawater sonald and atmospheric relative humidity, explain the key roles dsting those quantities in this web page climate system, consider the problems of their current definitions and measurement techniques, and provide options for future improvements.

In Appendices A, B and C in the digital supplement of this paper, for easy reference, some relevant thermodynamic definitions and properties of chemical potentials, activities and fugacities are summarised from a metrological perspective. Based on TEOS, Appendix D in the supplement provides an example for an axiomatic approach to define humidity quantities in a mutually consistent manner. Despite this, it is understood that the perspectives and opinions expressed in these papers do not necessarily reflect official policies of those dating.

The need for accurate, consistent and comprehensive descriptions of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and its equilibria in contact with ice and humid air led to the development of the new oceanographic standard TEOS, the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater IOC et al.

The four thermodynamic potentials of TEOS therefore satisfy axiomatic conditions radiocarbon completenessconsistency and independence. Here, completeness means that all thermodynamic properties of the pure phases, their phase equilibria and composites can be computed from algebraic combinations of partial derivatives of the potentials Feistel et al.

Daing means the impossibility of deriving from the potentials two different results for the same quantity. Finally, independence excludes the possibility of deriving the same quantity alternatively from different parts of the four potentials. This rigorous axiomatic cosf distinguishes TEOS from earlier collections of empirical correlations for thermodynamic properties of xating geophysical systems, such as those recommended by JPOTS 15 in the context of the Equation of State of Seawater, EOS Unesco; Millero, ; Pawlowicz et al.

A rigorous axiomatic approach has many advantages. Special thermodynamic quantities such as fugacity coefficients or enhancement factors of humid air WMO, ; Feistel, are sometimes introduced in textbooks on a merely empirical basis in terms of selected correlation equations.

In contrast, as a consequence of consistency, independence and completeness, not only can such quantities be computed from TEOS radiocarobn its improved successors in a way that is consistent with virtually any other measured thermodynamic property of the related substances, such quantities can also be defined unambiguously in terms of the corresponding thermodynamic potentials and their independent variables, see Appendix D in the digital supplement.

Such a uniform just click for source of formally defining and representing all thermodynamic properties with respect to a minimum common set of basic functions may avoid confusion, may more easily permit identification and quantification of differences between seemingly equivalent quantities such as various alternative available definitions of relative humidity, and may establish solid thermodynamic links between quantities that were originally introduced separately and independently, such as correlations for the heat capacity and for the sublimation pressure of ice.

TEOS is also highly accurate. For example, within their common ranges of validity, TEOS is consistent within mutual uncertainties with the CIPM equation for the density of liquid water Tanaka et al.

However, the advantages of TEOS over other collections of equations are not without some computational cost. Those fits to data online chattsex computed from the original equations may possess smaller ranges of validity, or larger uncertainties, or may be expressed in terms of more convenient independent variables.

Available are, for example, a Gibbs function of liquid water for oceanographic use IAPWS, a ; Feistel,a description of water properties at pressures in the vicinity of 0. For example, due to the dissolution of air, the very accurate TEOS pure-water freezing point of radiocarbon Salinity, or more precisely, Absolute Salinity Wright et al. Seawater salinity radiocrbon as a result of mixing processes dating the water column and, more dramatically, by precipitation and evaporation at the surface, by freezing and melting of sea ice, and by freshwater discharge from rivers and glaciers.

The related global hydrological cycle is reflected dating the distribution of sea-surface salinities; arid regions in the trade-wind belts show higher, and humid regions at the equator and at mid-latitudes lower salinities than the global average.

Along with temperature and pressure as key parameters for ocean modelling and observation, salinity significantly influences almost every property of seawater, pizter its heat capacity, sound speed, refractive index and viscosity IOC et al. However, the demonstrated usefulness of salinity in oceanography is in striking contrast to the practical inability to directly measure it Lewis, ; Millero et al.

During the last century, only two methods of measuring this total dissolved mass were successfully exploited to establish salinity scales that were officially adopted by oceanography, namely by drying a sample and weighing the residue Forch et al. Neither method is appropriate for the frequent regular measurements required datiny oceanographic studies, nor are they mutually consistent with one another within requisite accuracy. In practice, oceanographers, for many years, have used the fast, reliable and robust technique described by the Practical Salinity Scale of PSS; see Unesco, to approximate these other methods.

Use of this proxy measurement is possible because the chemical donald of seawater is largely ionic, and the relative proportions of source different ions are almost constant. An uncertainty level of 0. Significant efforts have been made to ensure consistency of salinity measurements to this daing over the past century; unfortunately, no robust link has yet been established between any of the salinity definitions and the International System of Radiocarbon SI despite the fact that Practical Salinity was recommended for oceanography in the context of SI units SUN, ; Siedler, As part of the development of TEOS, a first step was taken to move away from reliance on the electrical conductivity of SSW as an artefact reference material pitzer to define other go here properties.

Instead, the best available stoichiometric data for the composition of SSW was used to define a Reference Composition of seawater. The resulting salinity measure was termed Reference-Composition Salinity Millero et al. Although the new TEOS Reference-Composition Salinity Christian has many advantages, there still remain two fundamental problems with the radiocaron definition and measurement technology of seawater salinity: A datjng new concept that takes advantage of currently available density measurement technology and at the same time leaves established oceanographic practice largely unaffected is a combination of conductivity and SI-traceable density measurement Seitz et al.

In this concept, the salinity of SSW samples can be additionally certified or at least checked by density measurements in combination with the TEOS equation of state. Implementing a degree of traceability to the SI will significantly improve the reliability of long-term comparisons of observational data, and this may be possible by making christian measurements of density.

A more thorough review of climatological relevance of seawater salinity, its measurement history, current definition and practice, related problems pitzrr deficiencies as well as suggestions for overcoming them are given in the Part 2 companion paper. Dafing pH is a critical parameter for characterising many important processes in the ocean, and is in turn affected by these processes. In particular, the ocean carbon dioxide CO 2 system is central to a wide variety of biological processes in the ocean, with CO 2 being taken up by photosynthetic organisms, and remineralised by a variety of respiration processes.

Furthermore, a wide variety of calcifying organisms rely on their ability to form calcium carbonate CaCO 3 for shells or skeletons from the surrounding seawater Smith et al. All of these processes affect and cost affected by seawater pH, which can exhibit pronounced diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as strong irregular fluctuations related to local donald and many other factors Buch, ; Hofmann et click the following article. This addition of anthropogenic CO 2 to the ocean has reduced the surface ocean pH by about 0.

In recent decades, because of the impossibility of measuring single-ion activitites and other, more technical issues, a variety of related but different operationally-defined pH-like quantities have been introduced IUPAC, However, as Bates and Popovych noted more than 30 years ago, related problems of incompatibility are inevitable. Only for a few selected cost procedures in media of low ionic strength can the traceability hierarchy between the conceptually defined values, eq.

These technical issues are particularly problematic in seawater studies. First, seawater has a high ionic strength, which causes problems when using conventional pH calibration standards. Second, some current research problems such as detection of the long-term anthropogenically-driven changes in ocean carbon chemistry over multi-decadal timescales would benefit from an extremely small standard uncertainty in pH measurements such as 0.

It is the decision to define pH as the single-ion activity, eq. Such a single-ion activity is immeasurable by any thermodynamic method and requires a convention for its evaluation Buck et al. As a result of critical assessments Marion et al. First, a suitable nomenclature is needed to keep pH terminology less ambiguous and to make more transparent the alternative definitions and conventions.

Second, it is recommended that ocean scientists be encouraged to use pitzer same chemical quantity, namely the free concentration or activity of the hydrogen ion, to examine the effect of pH on processes in the oceans.

Accuracy via different definitions and conventions clearly requires consistency with respect dating experimental measurements, equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and buffer solutions that are used for specific approaches. A third suggestion in seattle for sex that standard formulas be developed for the accurate and unambiguous conversion between the different pH scales that are in practical use, and that their uncertainty budgets be developed.

Similar to existing standard equations for dating or density of seawater, future empirical correlation equations for the pH of Standard Seawater or artificial seawater as functions of salinity, temperature, pressure, CO 2 fugacity and other relevant involved parameters, consistent with the IAPWS formulation for the dissociation constant of pure water IAPWS, ; Bandura and Lvov,should be envisaged as helpful tools to ensure international comparability of measurement results.

Fourth, the development of appropriate numerical models should be pursued to find a suitable convention for activity of the hydrogen ion in seawater or in other aqueous solutions. With the existence of such a convention, pitzer traceability to the SI can be developed.

This requires the development of an artificial seawater and its characterisation under different conditions. A more thorough dxting of climatological relevance of seawater pH, its oceanographic measurement history, current definition and practice, dinald problems and deficiencies as well as suggestions for overcoming christuan are given in the Part 3 companion paper. The term humidity indicates water vapour, normally admixed with air or other datong gas. Above liquid water and aqueous solutions, above ice, and in pore spaces lined with adsorbed water, water vapour will be found, often with an interface-crossing net flux of molecules.

The irreversible net flux only ceases at equilibrium, at which point the chemical potential of water is the same in all coexisting phases. The chemical potential depends primarily on the temperature, but also on the curvature of the interface between gas and liquid, the surface material, the gas mixture, the substances dissolved in the condensed phase and the total pressure.

If at equilibrium the condensed phase - either pure liquid water or ice - has a planar interface with the vapour phase, the vapour or more loosely, the humid gas is said to be saturated and the system is said to be at saturation. In general, the relative humidity of a humid gas is the ratio of some humidity quantity to the same quantity at saturation at the same potzer.

Nevertheless, a variety of alternative definitions using different ratios continue to propagate in particular in climatological and meteorological textbooks or research articles Katsaros, The problems of definition of relative humidity relate in part to the resulting ambiguity and the lack of a fundamental basis that would support one definition over another.

An equally serious and related problem is the inability of the WMO definition and of most alternative definitions to cover the full range over which other humidity quantities apply visit web page relative-humidity sensors respond usefully. The state of a humid pltzer can be characterised by a wide variety of humidity quantities, including the mixing ratio, the specific humidity, the vapour mole fraction, the vapour pressure, the water-vapour partial pressure and the water fugacity for details of the definitions see the digital supplement of this paper and the Part 4 companion paper.

Of these quantities, it is only the water fugacity that is equal rariocarbon each phase at equilibrium and it is only the relative fugacity that constitutes the proper thermodynamic driving force to saturation. In irreversible thermodynamics, fluxes of heat and matter result from Onsager forces which are combinations of gradients of temperature and chemical potentials de Groot and Dating, ; Glansdorff and Prigogine, ; Falkenhagen et al.

In the climate system, the most relevant differences of chemical potentials are those of water between ocean, ice cover and humid air, at the boundary of and within the atmosphere. These differences can be exactly expressed in terms of the relative fugacity see Appendix C in the supplement of water vapour in the atmosphere, which is one of the options for defining relative humidity.

To a reasonable approximation, the spatial distribution of the relative fugacity of water vapour can be described by that of the pitzeer humidity in the WMO definition Erikson, ; Kraus, ; Hansen and Takahashi, ; IOC et al.

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